The Eastern Spadefoot Toad: A Complete Guide

The eastern spadefoot toad (Scaphiopus holbrookii) is a fascinating amphibian native to the eastern United States. With its distinctive vertical pupil and spade-like appendage on its hind feet, the eastern spadefoot has unique adaptations that allow it to thrive across its range. This guide provides an in-depth look at the eastern spadefoot toad, including its identification, habitat, life history, breeding habits, conservation status, and how you can help protect this species.


The eastern spadefoot (Scaphiopus holbrookii) is a plump-bodied toad ranging in color from gray to brown or black. It spends most of its time underground, emerging on rainy nights to feed and breed explosively in temporary wetlands. The eastern spadefoot is the only spadefoot species found east of the Mississippi River.

Spadefoots get their name from the sharp, black spade found on each of their hind feet. They use this adaptation to quickly burrow into sandy soils. The eastern spadefoot also has distinctive vertical pupils, like a cat’s eye, which gives it excellent night vision.

Due to habitat loss and destruction of its breeding sites, the eastern spadefoot has undergone population declines and is considered rare or threatened in parts of its range. By learning how to identify, locate, and protect the eastern spadefoot and its sensitive vernal pool breeding habitat, you can help conserve this fascinating species.

Identifying the Eastern Spadefoot

Eastern spadefoots range in size from 1.75 to 3 inches in length. Their stout bodies are gray, brown, or black, sometimes with a slightly lighter lyre-shaped marking on the back. Distinctive features to look for when identifying eastern spadefoots include:

  • Vertical pupil: The eastern spadefoot’s eyes have vertical, cat-like pupils, unlike the round pupils of most frogs and toads.
  • Spade-shaped projection: A prominent black, sickle-shaped spur on the bottom of each hind foot gives the spadefoot its name.
  • Smooth skin: Their skin is relatively smooth, unlike most toads. There are small warts around the edges but no large warts elsewhere on the body.
  • Parotoid glands: Oval parotoid glands are present on the shoulders.
  • Lack of crest: No bony crest between the eyes, unlike the similar-looking Great Plains spadefoot.
  • Coloration: Coloration is variable but usually gray, brown, or black, sometimes with pale stripes forming a faint “lyre” shape on the back. The belly is pale white.

Habitat and Range

The eastern spadefoot inhabits areas with sandy, well-drained soils. Its range extends along the Atlantic Coast from southern New England south to Florida and west across the Gulf Coast to central Texas and Oklahoma. Disjunct populations occur in the Ohio River Valley.

Typical habitats include:

  • Pine forests, scrub oak, and coastal plain ecosystems with sandy soils.
  • River floodplains.
  • Disturbed areas like fields, farms, and clearcuts.
  • Urban areas if suitable loose, sandy soil is present.

Eastern spadefoots spend most of their lives underground in self-dug burrows up to 3 feet deep. They share burrows with other fossorial species like gopher tortoises, crayfish, and small mammals.

Life History and Behavior

The eastern spadefoot leads a secretive life underground, emerging briefly on humid nights to hunt for insects, spiders, worms, and other invertebrate prey. During dry weather, spadefoots remain dormant in burrows sometimes 10 or more feet underground.

When heavy rains fill temporary wetlands, eastern spadefoots migrate explosively to breed. The distinctive call of the male spadefoot sounds like the bleating of a sheep. Spadefoots have rapid larval development, with tadpoles transforming into toadlets in as little as 12-20 days under ideal conditions. This allows them to metamorphose before ephemeral pools dry up.

Eastern spadefoots are well-camouflaged and avoid predators with freeze-like stillness, burrowing backward into the soil and inflating their bodies with air. Some populations may live 9 years or more in the wild.

Hunting and Breeding Habits

Eastern spadefoots emerge on rainy nights and during the day in shady, moist conditions to hunt for food. Using their lateral line sensory system and vertical pupils giving them excellent night vision, spadefoots prey on insects, spiders, worms, and other invertebrates.

Spadefoots breed rapidly after heavy rains, with males floating in temporary wetlands as they give their distinctive sheep-like call. Females lay up to 2000 eggs in multiple gelatinous strips attached to vegetation. Eggs hatch in 1-3 days with tadpole metamorphosis occurring rapidly to transform into toadlets before water sources dry up.

Conservation Status and Threats

While still common across parts of its range, eastern spadefoot populations have declined in areas of habitat destruction. Primary threats this species faces include:

  • Loss of breeding sites and ephemeral ponds due to development, agriculture, and desertification.
  • Use of pesticides and herbicides near wetlands.
  • Road mortality during seasonal migrations.
  • Destruction of upland sandy habitats.
  • Predation from invasive bullfrogs.
  • Hybridization with plains spadefoot toads in areas of overlapping range.
  • Diseases such as chytridiomycosis fungus.

Some states list the eastern spadefoot as threatened or endangered, while it has no special federal conservation status. Ongoing protection of existing habitats and mitigation of key threats are needed to ensure the long-term survival of eastern spadefoot populations.

Finding and Observing Eastern Spadefoots

Locating eastern spadefoots takes patience due to their secretive nature. The best way to find them is by listening to their distinctive calls near freshwater wetlands on rainy spring and summer nights. Other tips include:

  • Inspect burrows in loose soil, gently feeling inside holes. Spadefoots sometimes rest near burrow entrances.
  • Carefully lift debris in sandy areas after rain. Spadefoots seek cover under logs, boards, and other objects.
  • Check along the muddy edges of temporary wetlands and ponds during and after breeding activity.
  • Use a flashlight to look for eye shine when surveying ponds at night. The spadefoot’s eyeshine is green.
  • Search flooded fields, ditches, and low areas on roads after heavy rain during warmer months.

Take care not to disturb burrows or breeding sites. Observe spadefoots from a distance and allow them to remain in the wild.

Conserving the Eastern Spadefoot

Some ways you can help protect the eastern spadefoot include:

  • Report sightings to state wildlife agencies to help monitor populations.
  • Volunteer at organizations doing vernal pool restoration and protection.
  • Create wildlife-friendly habitats with sandy soils and temporary wetlands on your property.
  • Avoid pesticide use and dispose of chemicals properly to protect wetland breeding sites.
  • Drive carefully on rural roads, especially on rainy nights in spring, to avoid road mortality.
  • Support conservation efforts and wetland protection initiatives in your community and state.
  • Teach others about the eastern spadefoot and its connection to healthy, functioning ecosystems.

The eastern spadefoot toad fills an important ecological role and is a unique component of sandy forest and wetland biodiversity in the eastern United States. By supporting conservation and becoming a toad-ally, you can help safeguard this fascinating amphibian for generations to come!

Eastern Spadefoot Taxonomy and Classification

The eastern spadefoot belongs to the family Scaphiopodidae. Its scientific name is Scaphiopus holbrookii.

Some key facts about its taxonomy and classification:

  • The genus name Scaphiopus combines the Greek words for “spade” and “foot”, referring to the characteristic black spade adaptation.
  • The species is named Holbrookii after the American herpetologist John Edwards Holbrook who first described it.
  • The eastern spadefoot was formerly known as Scaphiopus holbrooki holbrooki, but the subspecies designation is no longer used.
  • Closely related spadefoot species include the plains spadefoot (S. bombifrons) and Hurter’s spadefoot (S. hurterii).
  • It is distinguished from other North American spadefoots by the lack of a bump between its eyes.
  • As a member of the family Scaphiopodidae, it is not a true toad or frog but rather a unique burrowing amphibian.

Distribution and Habitat

The eastern spadefoot has a wide distribution along the Atlantic Coastal Plain from southern New England southward to the Florida Keys, and westward across the Gulf Coast to eastern Texas and Oklahoma. Disjunct inland populations occur in the Ohio River Valley.

It inhabits areas with loose, sandy soils and breeds in temporary freshwater ponds and wetlands. Specific details on habitat include:

  • Pine and oak forests with sandy substrates. Longleaf pine ecosystems are preferred in the Southeast.
  • Coastal dunes, scrub, and maritime forests.
  • River floodplains, deltas, and terraces.
  • Disturbed areas like agricultural fields, powerline cuts, and clearcuts.
  • Urban areas but only where suitable sandy, well-drained soil is present.
  • Vernal pools, cypress ponds, and highly ephemeral wetlands for breeding.

The eastern spadefoot digs burrows in sandy soil up to 3 feet deep. It spends the majority of its life underground, especially in dry weather and winter.

Life Cycle and Metamorphosis

The eastern spadefoot goes through a fascinating metamorphosis during its life cycle:

  • Eggs are laid in strips or bands attached to vegetation in temporary wetlands.
  • The egg stage lasts only 1-3 days before hatching as tadpoles.
  • Tadpoles are greyish-brown in color and school together in large numbers.
  • Metamorphosis is rapid, taking only 12-20 days under optimal conditions. This allows toadlets to emerge from drying pools.
  • Time from egg to adulthood may be as brief as 18-21 days, one of the fastest amphibian development rates.
  • Toadlets resemble miniaturized adults and disperse into surrounding habitats after their ephemeral natal pond disappears.
  • Sexual maturity is reached in 1-2 years. Adults may live 9 or more years in the wild.

This rapid larval growth allows the eastern spadefoot to successfully breed even in extremely temporary wetlands that may hold water for only 2-3 weeks at a time.

Diet and Foraging Behavior

The eastern spadefoot is carnivorous and feeds on a variety of small invertebrates:

  • Insects: Crickets, beetles, flies, ants, grasshoppers, and caterpillars are common prey.
  • Spiders
  • Worms and other soft-bodied invertebrates.
  • Snails, slugs, and pill bugs.
  • Tadpoles are voracious omnivores, feeding on algae, organic detritus, and even other tadpoles.

Eastern spadefoots forage by ambushing prey that wanders near their burrows. They also actively hunt at night or during humid days by slowly stalking through vegetation and leaf litter, using their excellent vision to find prey.

Breeding Habits and Eggs

The eastern spadefoot breeding strategy is characterized by rapid, explosive breeding events triggered by heavy rainfall:

  • Breeding takes place from late winter through summer depending on locality.
  • Sudden heavy rains trigger mass migrations to wetlands, ditches, or temporary pools.
  • Males call while floating in the water, their chorus sounding like bleating sheep.
  • Females lay long gelatinous strings of 500-2000 eggs adhered to vegetation just below the water surface.
  • Eggs hatch rapidly in 1-3 days as aquatic larvae.
  • Eastern spadefoot tadpoles school in large numbers, grazing on detritus and algae.
  • After metamorphosis, the toadlets disperse into surrounding terrestrial habitats.

This reproductive strategy allows the eastern spadefoot to successfully breed in highly ephemeral wetlands that are only briefly flooded.

Defensive Adaptations and Avoiding Predators

Eastern spadefoots have several defensive adaptations to avoid becoming prey:

  • Freeze motionless when threatened, relying on camouflage to avoid detection.
  • Inflate themselves with air and raise on stiffened legs to appear larger.
  • Secrete distasteful, milky mucus from skin glands that may deter predators.
  • Burrow rapidly backward into the soil using their spades when seized.
  • Use vertical pupils and lateral line sensory system to detect predators in low light.
  • Remain underground in burrows most of the time to avoid predation at the surface.
  • Rapid development allows tadpoles to metamorphose before breeding pools dry up and strand them.
  • Unken reflex causes tadpoles to take evasive action in response to vibrations from approaching predators.

Key predators include wading birds, bullfrogs, fish, snakes, mammals, and other carnivorous amphibians. Avoiding detection with its camouflage and burrowing habits is the spadefoot’s main defense.

Threats and Conservation Actions

Major threats to eastern spadefoot populations include:

  • Habitat destruction: Due to agriculture, development, logging, mining, and water extraction causing loss of upland burrowing and breeding wetland habitats.
  • Road mortality: Being run over while migrating to breeding wetlands or dispersing after metamorphosis.
  • Pollution: Pesticides, fertilizers, sedimentation, and other pollutants impacting breeding sites.
  • Invasive species: Bullfrogs and fish preying on eggs and larvae in altered wetlands.
  • Disease: Chytridiomycosis fungal infections causing mortality. Also, the ranavirus impacts larval stages.

Conservation actions needed:

  • Protect remaining intact habitats through easements, and reserves, and avoid the development of key sites.
  • Manage forests with burrowing wildlife in mind by maintaining sandy openings.
  • Restore and create vernal pools and ephemeral wetlands to expand breeding areas.
  • Reduce road mortality with underpasses, barrier walls, and seasonal road closures.
  • Limit the use of pesticides and herbicides and better regulate runoff.
  • Control invasive aquatic predators like bullfrogs.
  • Survey and monitor populations to detect declines early.
  • Raise public awareness and support for eastern spadefoot and vernal pool conservation.

With appropriate conservation management, the eastern spadefoot can continue thriving across its range as a valuable part of America’s natural heritage.

Finding and Identifying Spadefoots

Locating eastern spadefoots takes patience and persistence due to their secretive burrowing habits. The best times to find them are on warm, humid nights after substantial rainfall when they emerge to breed and forage. Recommended survey methods include:

  • Listen for male breeding choruses near wetlands on rainy spring and summer nights. Their distinctive sheep-like bleating may sound like a crowing rooster.
  • Slowly drive roads near wooded areas and listen for individuals crossing to reach breeding pools. Use caution to avoid hitting them.
  • Search along pond and wetland edges using a flashlight to look for eye shine reflecting. Eastern spadefoots have bright green eye shine.
  • Carefully inspect burrows by feeling in areas with loose, sandy soil. Spadefoots may be underground even on damp nights.
  • Overturn logs, boards, debris, and vegetation in moist sandy spots. Spadefoots seek refuge under cover.
  • In flooded fields or ditches, use a flashlight to spot the small black spades protruding from the water as they float with just their heads exposed.

Once found, eastern spadefoots can be identified by their distinctive features:

  • Vertical cat-like pupils
  • Smooth, warty skin ranging from gray to brown or black
  • The presence of two prominent parotoid glands behind the eyes
  • Lack of bony crest between the eyes
  • Single black, sickle-shaped, sharp-edged spade on each hind foot
  • Horizontal pupil and yellow underside distinguish them from Fowler’s toads as tadpoles

Conservation Status by State

The eastern spadefoot is considered endangered, threatened, or of special concern in parts of its range but has no federal conservation status:

  • Connecticut – Endangered
  • Massachusetts – Threatened
  • New York – Special concern
  • Ohio – Endangered
  • New Jersey – Special concern
  • Delaware – Endangered
  • Maryland – In need of conservation
  • Virginia – Tier lV species of conservation concern
  • Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and the Carolinas – No special status
  • Louisiana – Potentially imperiled

Conservation efforts for the eastern spadefoot should focus on states where it has recognized vulnerability, but habitat protection across its full range is beneficial. Continued monitoring through citizen science reports can identify new areas of concern.

Get Involved in Eastern Spadefoot Conservation

Some ways you can help the eastern spadefoot include:

  • Document observations on citizen science sites like HerpMapper and submit spadefoot sightings to state wildlife agencies. Photograph any distinguishing features.
  • Reduce pesticide and fertilizer use at home and dispose of hazardous chemicals properly to protect water quality in wetlands.
  • Volunteer at organizations like The Orianne Society that restore and monitor eastern spadefoot populations and habitats.
  • If you have suitable sandy property, create vernal pools or ephemeral wetlands for spadefoot breeding habitat.
  • Teach children about the eastern spadefoot’s fascinating life history and why vernal pools deserve protection.
  • Support land acquisition initiatives to protect habitats with burrowing wildlife and isolated wetlands at risk of development.
  • Advocate for better protection of ephemeral wetlands, which often lack legal protections compared to permanent water bodies.
  • Drive carefully on rural roads on rainy spring nights when spadefoots are migrating to breed.

With assistance from concerned citizens, state and federal agencies, nonprofits, and researchers, the unique eastern spadefoot can retain its vital place in America’s ecosystems.

Taxonomy and Classification

The eastern spadefoot toad belongs to the family Scaphiopodidae within the order Anura (frogs and toads). Its scientific classification is:

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia Order: Anura Family: Scaphiopodidae Genus: Scaphiopus Species: S. Holbrook

The genus name Scaphiopus combines the Greek words skaphe meaning “spade” and pous meaning “foot”, referring to the shovel-like projection on its hind feet.

The species name Holbrookii honors John Edwards Holbrook, an American herpetologist who first described the eastern spadefoot toad in 1836 after discovering it in South Carolina.

Two other spadefoot species occur in North America – the plains spadefoot (S. bombifrons) and Hurter’s spadefoot (S. hurterii). The eastern spadefoot can be distinguished by its smoother skin and lack of a bony crest between the eyes.

Conservation Status Across Range

The eastern spadefoot’s conservation status varies across the states within its range:

  • Connecticut – State Endangered
  • Massachusetts – State Threatened
  • New York – Special Concern
  • New Jersey – Special Concern
  • Delaware – State Endangered
  • Maryland – In Need of Conservation
  • Virginia – Tier IV Species of Greatest Conservation Need
  • North Carolina – Significantly Rare
  • South Carolina – Not ranked
  • Georgia – Not ranked
  • Florida – Not listed
  • Alabama – Not ranked
  • Mississippi – Not ranked
  • Louisiana – Potentially imperiled
  • Texas – No listing status

While still common in parts of its range, habitat destruction has caused the eastern spadefoot to become rare, threatened or endangered in at least six states in the Northeast, underscoring the need for continued conservation attention.

Get Involved in Citizen Science

You can contribute to eastern spadefoot research and conservation by participating in citizen science:

  • Enter observations on HerpMapper to help scientists track spadefoot distribution and trends.
  • Photograph eastern spadefoots and their unique eye pupils and hind spades to document your sightings.
  • Submit observations to state wildlife agencies like the Virginia Herpetological Society’s PARC project.
  • Report injured spadefoots or degraded habitats to conservation organizations.
  • Join FrogWatch USA to monitor wetlands for calling eastern spadefoots and enter data.
  • Volunteer to help with annual spadefoot breeding censuses organized by nonprofit groups.
  • Attend training webinars on eastern spadefoot identification and survey methods.
  • Invite researchers to study spadefoot populations on your land if you have a suitable habitat.

Public involvement provides valuable data to guide future research and habitat management decisions for the eastern spadefoot.


The eastern spadefoot toad is a unique and fascinating amphibian native to the eastern United States. Some of the key interesting facts covered in this guide include:

  • The eastern spadefoot spends most of its time underground in self-dug burrows, emerging briefly to feed and breed.
  • Its eyes have vertical slit-like pupils giving it excellent night vision for hunting insects and other invertebrate prey.
  • Rapid larval development allows eastern spadefoot tadpoles to metamorphose in as little as 12-20 days in temporary wetlands and pools.
  • Explosive breeding events see hundreds of eastern spadefoots migrating to wetlands on rainy nights in a rush to mate and lay eggs.
  • The spadefoot’s distinctive call sounds like the bleating of sheep or a crowing rooster.
  • Each hind foot has a sharp, sickle-shaped black spade used for speedy backward burrowing when threatened.
  • Habitat loss and destruction of ephemeral breeding ponds have caused eastern spadefoot declines in parts of its range.

Protecting the eastern spadefoot’s fragile vernal pool breeding sites and sandy upland habitats is crucial for conserving these unique amphibians. By learning more about the eastern spadefoot and supporting wetland conservation, you can help safeguard this species. Please refer to the resources below for more information on these fascinating burrowing toads of the eastern U.S.